1. : Introduction
In that year, the Mayor's Office of
Norwich City Council published a list of all
558 premises licensed by the Magistrates
(General Licensing Acts of George IV).
Helpfully, the list appears under Parish headings.
Although it has the benefit of more authenticity
(and accuracy?) than the usual Trades Directories
(e.g. White's of the same year), its most useful
feature relates to the ownership of the premises -
the great majority being a brewery company.
However, ownership details are missing
in very many cases.
This is a somewhat bizarre feature of the lists,
as the Council could (easily?) have obtained
the facts in virtually every case.
That they did not, reveals that their real interest
lay in brewery, and other corporate, ownerships;
rather than individual landlords - in the literal sense.
So these voids have been taken, in general, to imply
Free House status (see para. 4); given that voluntary
brewery ties are very difficult to establish : perhaps
often temporary and spasmodic in nature.
Sadly, only the list of 1845 seems to have been
produced or have survived. For the "tied-house"
situation, it only provides one 'snap-shot'
to cover the greater part of the 19th Century.
Much better than nothing, however,
as the following paragraphs may reveal.
2. : Brewery Ties
The number of pubs ostensibly (see para. 4  )
tied to a brewery was 418 - almost 75% of all pubs :
a rather surprising figure - less than half-way
through the 19th Century.
The heavyweight brewer was Steward & Patteson
with no less than 183 premises (i.e. almost 44%
of all ties); followed, at some distance, by -
Young's (71); Morgan's (59); and Bullard's (33).
Just to complete the record :-
Weston's had 32 pubs and
Crawshay's 25; both of
which breweries later became part of Young's
empire. That brewery could therefore
be construed as fast heading towards
a 'competitive' total of 128 houses!.
At the other extreme :-
County brewery holdings are
on a surprisingly small scale :-
The total of all the above cases is 418 out of 558.
- Dowson is recorded at two pubs : which
turns out to be the name of a representative
of the Geldeston Brewery. Similarly -
- Bircham (Reepham) held the White Lion
in Oak Street.
- Primrose (Trunch) held the Cellar House
in St. George's.
3. : The Merchants
It has been noted elsewhere that chains of pubs
are by no means a new idea.
Principal exponents in 19th Century Norwich
were Seaman's, who owned 23 houses -
almost as many as Crawshay's brewery !!.
Other merchants involved directly in
pub ownership were :- Culley (2),
Morrison (4), Norgate (3), Raynes (2),
Rose (2) Tacon (4) and, arguably, Filby (2),
Only 2 other (single) pubs were "externally"
owned, i.e. by individuals or firms other than
the named landlord.
One was the Maid's Head Hotel - essentially free;
and the other Messrs. Bolingbroke's Vine Tavern
in Upper St. Giles.
Neither is deducted at this stage.
This leaves a total of 98 pubs that possibly come
under the heading of "genuine" Free Houses -
which is 17.6% of the grand total.
4. : Free Houses?
Of the 98 remaining pubs, it should be noted that
28 also traded as Wines & Spirits Merchants;
and that a further six could also, and quite properly,
be described as Brewery Taps.
 It should be noted that these
ten "home-brewers" were :-
If we then exclude a further 9 listed (albeit in 1850)
- not all included in the previous figure of 418 -
only 4 have already been mentioned (para. 2) ;
- the most tied of all tied houses !!
as major Hotels,
this reduces the number of plain,
ordinary, unattached and independent pubs to a mere
55 - out of a grand total of 558 (i.e. just under 10%).
And this was more than a century and a half ago !
Naturally, these pubs have their own separate list.
5. : Beerhouses
The absence of beerhouses from the official list is
deliberate - yet, conversely, a likely boost to the
overall number of free outlets actually available to
Based on the White's Directory already mentioned,
there would have been at least 35 beerhouses
at the time - perhaps more.
Also see the Section on definitions.
A better gloss can be put on the Free House
situation by including the 35 beerhouses.
This gives a figure of 90 pubs or 16.1% of the total.
But many beerhouses will also have been tied to breweries.
The best scenario would -
also include all merchants and hotels;
thus giving 127 out of 558 or 22.8%