1. : Introduction
In that year, the Mayor's Office of
Norwich City Council published a list of all
558 premises (Inns and Public Houses)
licensed by the Magistrates, under the
General Licensing Act of George IV.
Helpfully, the list is under Parish headings.
Although it has the benefit of more
authenticity (and accuracy?) than the usual
(e.g. White's also 1845),
its most useful feature relates to the
ownership of the premises - the great
majority being a brewery company.
However, ownership details are missing
in very many cases.
This is a somewhat bizarre feature of the lists,
as the Council could (easily?) have obtained
the facts in virtually every case.
That they did not, reveals that their real interest
lay in ownerships : brewery or other corporate,
rather than individual landlords - literally.
So these voids have been taken, in general,
to imply Free House status (see para. 4);
given that voluntary brewery ties are
difficult to establish : perhaps often
temporary & spasmodic in nature.
Sadly, only the list of 1845 seems to have
been produced or have survived. For the
"tied-house" situation, it only provides one
'snap-shot' for the greater part of the 19th C.
Much better than nothing, however,
as the following paragraphs may reveal.
2. : Brewery Ties
The number of pubs ostensibly (see para. 4  )
tied to a brewery was 418 - almost 75% of
all pubs : a rather surprising figure - less than
half-way through the 19th Century.
The leading brewer was
Steward & Patteson
with no less than 183 premises (i.e. almost
44% of all ties) followed, at some distance,
by - Young's (71);
and Bullard's (33).
Just to complete the record :-
Weston's had 32 pubs and
both of which breweries later became part of
Young's empire. That brewery could therefore
be construed as fast heading towards
a 'competitive' total of 128 houses!.
At the other extreme :-
County brewery holdings are
on a surprisingly small scale :-
The total of all the above is 418 out of 558.
- Dowson is recorded at two pubs : which
turns out to be the name of a representative
of the Geldeston Brewery. Similarly -
- Bircham ( Reepham ) held the White Lion
in Oak Street.
( Trunch ) held the Cellar House
in St. George's.
3. : The Merchants
It has been noted elsewhere that chains
of pubs are by no means a new idea.
Principal exponents in 19th Century Norwich
were Seaman's, who owned 23 houses -
almost as many as Crawshay's brewery !!.
Other merchants involved directly in
pub ownership were :- Culley (2),
Morrison (4), Norgate (3), Raynes (2),
Rose (2) Tacon (4) and, arguably, Filby (2),
Only 2 other (single) pubs were "externally"
owned, i.e. by individuals or firms other than
the named landlord.
One was the Maid's Head Hotel - essentially
free; and the other Messrs. Bolingbroke's
Vine Tavern in Upper St. Giles.
Neither is deducted at this stage.
This leaves a total of 98 pubs that possibly
come under the heading "genuine" Free
Houses - which is 17.6% of the grand total.
4. : Free Houses?
Of the 98 remaining pubs, it is noted that
28 also traded as Wines & Spirits
and that a further six could also, and quite
properly, be described as Brewery Taps.
 It should be noted that these
ten "home-brewers" were :-
If we then exclude a further 9 listed
- not all included in the figure of 418 -
only 4 have already been
mentioned (in para. 2) ;
- the most tied of all tied houses !!
(albeit in 1850) as major
reduces the number of plain, ordinary,
unattached and independent pubs to a
mere 55 - out of a grand total of 558
(i.e. just under 10%).
And this was about 170 years ago !
These pubs have their own separate list.
5. : Beerhouses
Absence of beerhouses
from the official list is
deliberate - yet, conversely, a likely boost to the
overall number of free outlets actually available
to the beer-drinker.
Based on the White's Directory, as mentioned,
there would have been at least 35 beerhouses
at the time - perhaps more.
A better gloss can be put on the Free House
situation by including the 35 beerhouses.
This gives a figure of 90 pubs or 16.1%
of the total.
But many beerhouses will also
have been tied to breweries.
The best scenario would -
also include all merchants and hotels;
thus giving 127 out of 558 or 22.8%