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(Paras. 1 to 8)

Norwich Pubs in 1914

The Directory Listings

2. The Leader :  3. Other Breweries   5. The Hotels :  6. Other Free Outlets
7. Summary :  8. Footnotes

1. : Historical Juncture

1914  was chosen as a  benchmark  year
for obvious reasons :
  • Heavy loss of life in the impending World War;
  • Customers, in those days, being mainly  men.

This benchmark has been used as the
Classic Tie   for those pubs existing at the time.
The 1914  Jarrold's Directory  has the great
added advantage of showing all the brewery ties,
Free Houses, etc.

There had already been some nine years of
losses following the  Compensation Act 1904.
No less than 78 pubs had fallen victim
by the end of 1913. (Understandably,
four of these were still  listed  in 1914).
Several more were to be closed by Dec. 1914.

Where a pub closed before 1914, the brewery
(if known) is also shown as the  Classic Tie.

2. : The Leader

The runaway leader in the  1845 List,  from the
'Big'  breweries, had been  Steward & Patteson
with 183 houses and almost 44% of  all  ties.
By 1914, however,  Bullard's  had edged ahead
133 to 126.
Plus some intermediate figures for August 1890
   1890 1914 
104  Bullard's133 -29.6%
141  S. & P.126 -28.0%
83  Youngs'87 -19.3%
65  Morgan's73 -16.2%
31  Lacon's31 -6.9%
It is remarkable that the oldest Norwich brewery
- by far - had fallen to under 17% of the total*,
despite a useful upsurge since 1890.
Conversely, the "upstart" brewery had advanced
remarkably - from the comparable figure of
only 8.2% in 1845; ignoring Lacon's.

Note : The total* is for the five breweries only,
           i.e. not including the remaining pubs.

3. : Other Breweries

As for local breweries in 1914, the answer is
just  two  : Cooper-Brown   of East Dereham,
who were at the  St. Giles' Gate Stores;
and  T. S. Bidwell & Sutton  of Thetford, at the
Corn Exchange,  St. George's Bridge Street.
However the latter pub closed in February 1915.
(Also see  Grapes Hotel  in para. 4 below).

In 1914  Allsopp & Co.  (Burton on Trent)
are listed at just two pubs :

Regarding some of the  1890  figures :-
The identical total for  Lacon's  is, in fact, an
amalgamation  of 25 pubs under  Grimmer's
and 6 under  Arnold's.

[ In the  1845 List  Grimmer's pubs were
recorded under  Seaman's.  Neither of these
firms brewed beer; which was provided by
Arnold's Brewery, later taken over by Lacon's. ]

Also 7 pubs had been listed in 1890 under
Cann & Co.  of Wymondham; who had left
the Norwich scene by 1914.


4. : The Merchants

Wines and Spirits merchants, some being
important businesses, have always formed
a significant part of the  free  licensed trade.
In 1914, these were principally :-
  • Messrs.  Back's,  with three outlets
  • Messrs.  Barwell's,  with two outlets
  • Cubitt, Brown & Carter at the   Wine Vaults
        (Fye Bridge)
  • Quick's  Wine Vaults (formerly  Athow's)
        in the Back of the Inns.
One Major Eustace Cuthbert Quilter was
trading as  Bidwell & Co.;  but also had owned,
for some 9 years, the said  Grapes Hotel.
However the latter was still listed in 1914 under
Allsopp;  who had taken over in 1890.

Premises formerly occupied by merchants,
which had preserved their free status - after
apparently changing to 'ordinary' pubs :-

5. : The Hotels

Hotels rightly tend to cherish their status as
Free Houses, which in 1914 were listed -

6. : Other Free Outlets

Heading the more general list are three
establishments whose principal function
was that of a licensed restaurant :- Two railway Refreshment Rooms are listed at :-
Thorpe Station  and   City Station.

Other free pubs which - even back in 1914 -
were worth their weight in gold :-

7. : Summary

Pubs tied to the 5 main brewers total
450, as per the %age table in para. 2
The various categories of Free Houses,
detailed above, total 35, i.e. only  7.2 %
(This compares with a mysterious figure
of 18 in the 1890 survey).

The grand total for 1914 is therefore 485.
Importantly, this figure includes  beer retailers,
which is yet another advantage of working
from the  local  1914  Jarrold's Directory.

8. :  Footnotes
[1]   Owned, since 1895, by   Coleman & Co.
       Westwick Street.
[2]  Also known as "The Omnibus".
[3]  Messrs. Grix, restaurateur, White Lion St.
[4]  Tied to  Harman Brothers  for wines etc.,
       but free for beer sales.
[5]   Also known as  Websdale's.

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